CCTV Cameras also known as video surveillance. The use of video cameras is to transmit a signal to a specific place on a limited set of monitors.
The Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world.
CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room.
The growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders (DVRs). And that’s provides recording for possibly many years.
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The earliest video surveillance systems involved static monitoring. That’s because there was no way to record and store information. The development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage.
Magnetic tapes change manually the systems required. It was a waste of time, expensive and unreliable process. Having the operator will manually thread the tape from the tape reel. That’s through the recorder onto an empty take-up reel. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread. VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information. And the use of video surveillance became more common.
That’s allow several cameras to record at once. As well as time lapse and motion-only recording. This saved time and money which then led to an increase in the use of CCTV.
CCTV Wireless Security Camera
Many consumers are turning to wireless security cameras. For home surveillance. Wireless cameras do not require a video cable for video/audio transmission, simply a cable for power.
Wireless cameras are also easy and inexpensive to install but lack the reliability of hard-wired cameras.
Previous generations of wireless security cameras relied on analogue technology; modern wireless cameras use digital technology which delivers crisper audio, sharper video and a secure and interference-free signal.
Computer – Controlled Analytics and Identification Surveillance CCTV Cameras
Computer-controlled cameras can identify, track, and categorize objects in their field of view.
Recently CCTV technology enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, and other technological developments.
Video Content Analysis
Also referred to as video analytics, is the capability of automatically analyzing video. That’s help to detect and determine temporal events. Also not based on a single image but rather object classification.
It can also be used to detect unusual patterns in an environment. Detecting anomalies in a crowd will set the system. That’s used for instance a person moving in the opposite direction.
There are different approaches to implementing VCA technology. The Camera itself or centralized server will process the data (edge processing). Both approaches have their pros and cons.
CCTV Retention Cameras, Storage and Preservation
CCTV systems when produce the retention of images, there is will be a cost.
The amount and quality of data stored on storage media is subject to compression ratios. Also for images stored per second. The retention period of the videos or images will effect the image size. DVRs store images in a variety of proprietary file formats.
Then the recordings automatically archived, overwritten or deleted.
CCTV IP Cameras
A growing branch in CCTV is internet protocol cameras. IP cameras is estimated in 2014. And it was the first year that IP cameras outsold analog cameras.
Local Area Networks (LANs) mostly use IP cameras. and it will transmit video across data networks in digital form. That’s allowing users to view their cameras remotely on a computer or phone via an internet connection.
For professional or public infrastructure security applications, IP video is restricted to within a private network or VPN. IP cameras are considered part of the Internet of Things (IoT).
IoT have many of the same benefits and security risks as other IP-enabled devices.
Networking Surveillance CCTV Cameras
Some cities operates a networked video surveillance system. Which combines CCTV video feeds of government agencies with those of the private sector, installed in city buses, businesses, public schools, subway stations, housing projects etc. Even homeowners are able to contribute footage. It is estimated to incorporate the video feeds of a total of 15,000 cameras.
Several of institutions and companies use the system. It detects the caller’s location and instantly displays. The real-time video feed of the nearest security camera to the operator, not requiring any user intervention.
While the system is far too vast to allow complete real-time monitoring, it stores the video data. That’s for later usage in order to provide possible evidence in criminal cases.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior and activities. Also the information for the purpose of information gathering, influencing, managing or directing. means of electronic equipment will make include observation from a distance, such as closed-circuit television (CCTV). Or interception of electronically transmitted information, such as Internet traffic. CCTV can also include simple technical methods, such as identifying the humans and postal interception. Synonym: Observation (example: twenty-four hour observation will guard this room). Surveillance is used for secure the area, protection of a process, person, group or object. And businesses to gather intelligence on their competitors, suppliers or customers. Cameras help organizations to control the work well and may also carry out surveillance. Auditors carry out a form of surveillance.
Organizations use CCTV to monitor the actions of workers. Every action is recorded as an information block with subtitles that explain the performed operation. Surveillance CCTV Cameras helps to track the actions of workers. Especially when they are making critical financial transactions, such as correcting or cancelling of a sale, withdrawing money or altering personal information.
Using Surveillance CCTV Cameras
Surveillance cameras are video cameras, and used for the purpose of observing an area. Cameras are often connected to a recording device or IP network. Security guard or law enforcement officer may be manage CCTV. Cameras and recording equipment they are relatively expensive and required human personnel. Its will help to monitor camera footage. But the automated software make the analysis of footage easier. Video analysis software Analysis the footage organizes digital video footage into a searchable database. (such as VIRAT and Human ID). Motion sensors drastically reduce The amount of footage. Only record when motion is detected with cheaper production techniques. Surveillance cameras are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems, and for everyday surveillance.
As of 2016, there are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide. About 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia. The growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. In 2018, China was reported to have a huge surveillance network. Over 170 million Surveillance CCTV cameras with 400 million new cameras expected to be installed in the next three years. many of Surveillance CCTV cameras use facial recognition technology.
Surveillance CCTV Cameras Monitoring
Actions which an employer may wish to monitor could include:
Scanning of goods, selection of goods, introduction of price and quantity;
Input and output of operators in the system when entering passwords;
Deleting operations and modifying existing documents;
Implementation of certain operations, such as financial statements or operations with cash;
Moving goods, revaluation scrapping and counting;
Control in the kitchen of fast food restaurants;
Change of settings, reports and other official functions.
Each of these operations is transmitted with a description. The detailed monitoring of all actions of the operator will be allowed. time of occurrence and text description will make Some systems allow the user to search for a specific event. Also the perform statistical evaluation of operator behavior. The software will be allowed to predict deviations from the standard workflow and record only anomalous behavior.
Use CCTV in Schools
Schools use widely CCTV due to effectivity in preventing bullying, vandalism, monitoring visitors and maintaining. In addition, record of evidence in the event of a any problems happened. There are some restrictions on installation with cameras not being installed in an area where there is a “reasonable expectation of privacy”. Such as bathrooms, gym locker areas and private offices (unless the office occupant give consent). Cameras are generally acceptable in hallways, parking lots, front offices where students, employees. Also parents come and go, gymnasiums, cafeterias, supply rooms and classrooms. Some teachers might objected The installation of cameras in classrooms.
Surveillance CCTV Cameras for private homes
Many home owners now choose to install CCTV systems on their own homes. Surveillance CCTV cameras are an effective deterrent to criminals. As Cameras increases the risk of criminals getting arrested. That’s because they could be identified through the camera footage. Most criminals will scout through affluent suburbs looking for the easiest house to break into. Having an obvious CCTV system, or another security alarm, makes the house appear to be a more difficult target. So the criminals will likely move on to the next house. Modern CCTV systems can be monitored through mobile phone apps. And will be possible to view live footage of your house from anywhere you have internet coverage. Some systems even provide motion detection so when movement is detected, an alert can be sent to your phone.
Car Number Plate Scanner (ANPR) – Surveillance CCTV Cameras
Many cities and motorway networks have extensive traffic-monitoring systems. Using closed-circuit television will detect congestion and notice accidents.
The private companies have many cameras. And transmit data to drivers’ GPS systems.
Highways in some countries have a publicly owned CCTV network of over 3000 Pan-Tilt-Zoom cameras covering the motorway and trunk road network. These cameras are primarily used to monitor traffic conditions and are not used as speed cameras.
The number of cameras on the Highways road’s is an addition of fixed cameras for the active traffic management system. CCTV network is likely to increase significantly over the next few years.
The software aspect of the system runs on standard home computer hardware. The software can link other applications or databases. The series of image manipulation techniques can detect Normalize and enhance the image of the number plate. Optical character recognition (OCR) can extract the alphanumeric of the license plate.
“ANPR” systems are generally deployed in one of two basic approaches: one allows performing for the entire process to be at the lane location in real-time. The other transmits all the images from many lanes to a remote computer location. Also performs the OCR process there at some later point in time.
“ANPR” it is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates to create vehicle location data. For also existing closed-circuit television, road-rule enforcement cameras, or cameras specifically designed for the task. ANPR used around the world for law enforcement purposes, including to check if a vehicle is registered or licensed. Also used for electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and as a method of cataloguing the movements of traffic, for example highways agencies.
Automatic number-plate recognition can be used to store the Cameras images captured. As well as the text from the license plate, with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of day or night. ANPR technology must take into account plate variations from place to place.
There are seven primary algorithms that the software requires for identifying a license plate:
Plate localization – responsible for finding and isolating the plate on the picture.
Plate orientation and sizing – compensates for the skew of the plate and adjusts the dimensions to the required size.
Normalization – adjusts the brightness and contrast of the image.
Character segmentation – finds the individual characters on the plates.
Optical character recognition.
Syntactical/Geometrical analysis – check characters and positions against country-specific rules.
The averaging of the recognized value over multiple fields/images to produce a more reliable or confident result. Especially since any single image may contain a reflected light flare, be partially obscured or other temporary effect.
The complexity of each of these subsections of the program determines the accuracy of the system. During the third phase (normalization), some systems use edge detection techniques to increase the picture difference between the letters and the plate backing. A median filter may also be used to reduce the visual noise on the image.
Despite their effectiveness, there are noteworthy challenges related with mobile ANPRs. One of the biggest is that the processor and the cameras must work fast enough to accommodate relative speeds of more than 100 mph (160 km/h). A likely scenario in the case of oncoming traffic. The equipment must also be very efficient since the power source is the vehicle battery, and equipment must be small to minimize the space it requires.
Relative speed is only one issue that affects the camera’s ability to actually read a license plate. Algorithms must be able to compensate for all the variables to affect the ANPR’s ability to produce an accurate read. Such as time of day, weather and angles between the cameras and the license plates.
A system’s illumination wavelengths can also have a direct impact on the resolution. In addition, accuracy of a read in these conditions.
Network Digital Video CCTV Recorder
Digital video recorders configured for physical security applications record video signals. Such as closed-circuit television cameras for detection and documentation purposes. Many are designed to record audio as well.
DVRs have evolved into rich devices feature. In addition, provide services that exceed the simple recording of video images that was previously done through VCRs. A DVR CCTV system provides a multitude of advanced functions over VCR technology. Also event, time, date and camera make including video searches.
There is also much more control over quality. And frame rate allowing disk space usage to be optimized. Also the DVR can also be set to overwrite the oldest security footage should the disk become full. In some DVR security systems remote access to security footage using a PC. Then connecting the DVR to a LAN network or the Internet will make achieve.
Some of the latest professional digital video recorders include video analytics firmware to enable functionality. Such as ‘virtual tripwire’ or even the detection of abandoned objects on the scene.
Security DVRs may be categorized as being either PC-based or embedded. A PC-based DVR’s architecture is a classical personal computer with video capture cards designed to capture video images. An embedded type DVR is specifically designed as a digital video recorder. With operating system and application software contained in firmware or read-only memory.
Network video recorders are distinct from digital video recorders (DVR). As the input is from a network rather than a direct connection to a video capture card or tuner. Video on a DVR is encoded and processed at the DVR, while video on an NVR is encoded and processed at the camera. Then streamed to the NVR for storage or remote viewing. Additional processing may be done at the NVR.